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Laser Safety

Laser classes

In the USA, lasers are regulated by the FDA according to the Code of Federal Regulations (21CFR1040.10). Lasers are classified for safety purposes based on their potential for causing injury to humans’ eyes and skin. For visible-beam consumer lasers, there are four main classes.

 

Class 1

A Class 1 laser is safe under all conditions of normal use. This means the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) cannot be exceeded when viewing a laser with the naked eye or with the aid of typical magnifying optics (e.g. telescope or microscope). It is important to realize that certain lasers classified as Class 1 may still pose a hazard when viewed with a telescope or microscope of sufficiently large aperture

Class 1M

A Class 1M laser is safe for all conditions of use except when passed through magnifying optics such as microscopes and telescopes. Class 1M lasers produce large-diameter beams, or beams that are divergent.

Class 2

A Class 2 laser is considered to be safe because the blink reflex (glare aversion response to bright lights) will limit the exposure to no more than 0.25 seconds. It only applies to visible-light lasers (400–700 nm). Class-2 lasers are limited to 1 mW continuous wave, or more if the emission time is less than 0.25 seconds or if the light is not spatially coherent. Intentional suppression of the blink reflex could lead to eye injury.

Class 2M

A Class 2M laser is safe because of the blink reflex if not viewed through optical instruments. As with class 1M, this applies to laser beams with a large diameter or large divergence, for which the amount of light passing through the pupil cannot exceed the limits for class 2.

Class 3R

A Class 3R laser is considered safe if handled carefully, with restricted beam viewing. With a class 3R laser, the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) can be exceeded, but with a low risk of injury. Visible continuous lasers in Class 3R are limited to 5 mW. For other wavelengths and for pulsed lasers, other limits apply.

Class 3B

A Class 3B laser is hazardous if the eye is exposed directly, but diffuse reflections such as those from paper or other matte surfaces are not harmful. The accessible emission limits (AEL) for continuous lasers in the wavelength range from 315 nm to far infrared is 500mW. For pulsed lasers between 400 and 700 nm, the limit is 30 mJ. Class-3B lasers must be equipped with a key switch and a safety interlock.

Class 4

Class 4 is the highest class of laser, including all lasers that exceed the Class 3B AEL. By definition, a class 4 laser can burn the skin, or cause devastating and permanent eye damage as a result of direct, diffuse or indirect beam viewing. These hazards may also apply to indirect or non-specular reflections of the beam, even from apparently matte surfaces—meaning that great care must be taken to control the beam path. Class 4 lasers must be equipped with a key switch and a safety interlock. Most industrial, scientific, military, and medical lasers are in this category.